100 Mile House
Community Health Service Area
Health Profile (Version 2.0)


Age-standardization: An age-standardized rate is a rate that would have existed if the population had the same age distribution as the selected reference population. The Community Health Service Area (CHSA) health profiles uses the 2011 Canadian standard population weights provided by the BC Ministry of Health as the reference population. Chronic disease incidence and prevalence rates have been age-standardized using the direct standardization method with five-year age groups.

Collective dwelling: Refers to a dwelling of a commercial, institutional or communal nature. It may be identified by a sign on the premises or by an enumerator speaking with the person in charge, a resident, a neighbour, etc. Included are lodging or rooming houses, hotels, motels, tourist establishments, nursing homes, hospitals, staff residences, military bases, work camps, jails, group homes, and so on.

1440 100 Mile House

Crude rates: These rates represent the number of cases in a specific geographic region divided by the population or population-at-risk in that region. Crude rates represent the burden of disease in the population and are not adjusted to the standard population.

Incidence: The number of people newly diagnosed with a condition in a population during a specific time period is called the incidence. Incidence is often presented as a rate – the number of people who get sick with a disease or condition divided by the number of people at risk of getting sick in a specified time frame.

Prevalence: The total number of people living with a condition in a population during a specific time period is called the prevalence. Prevalence differs from incidence in that it includes people who have been living with the condition for one or more years. Prevalence is often presented as a rate – the number of people living with a condition divided by the total population in a specified time frame.

Primary Care Network: A Primary Care Network (PCN) consists of a network of clinicians from multiple medical disciplines engaged in team-based practice. PCNs act as a hub to connect healthcare providers, streamline referrals, and provide better support for health practitioners. PCNs are part of the BC Ministry of Health's vision for a more integrated and effective primary care system in B.C.

Primary Care Network community: A PCN community is composed of one or more PCNs that provide services to a geographic region. These geographic regions are amalgamations of CHSAs.

Recent immigrant: Immigrant refers to a person who is or has ever been a landed immigrant or permanent resident in Canada. In the CHSA health profiles, recent immigrants are individuals who, at the time of the Canadian Census 2016 (May 10th), had immigrated to Canada within the past five years.

Refugee: Refugees are immigrants who were granted permanent resident status because they can no longer return to their home country for fear of persecution due to their race, religion, nationality, social group membership or political opinion. Refugee can also refer to individuals who have been affected by civil war or armed conflict or have suffered a serious human rights violation and are resettling in Canada.

Underemployment: Underemployment is defined as the condition in which the hours of work of an employed person are insufficient in relation to an alternative employment situation in which the person is willing and available to engage. This includes the share of part-time workers who would prefer to be working full-time.[56]


National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; Health and Medicine Division; Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice; Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States. (2017, January 11). Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., Geller, A., & Weinstein, J. N. (Eds.). Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US).
Statistics Canada. (2012). Household. Retrieved from: https://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p3Var.pl?Function=Unit&Id=96113
Robards, J., Evandrou, M., Falkingham, J., & Vlachantoni, A. (2012). Marital status, health and mortality. Maturitas, 73(4), 295-299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.maturitas.2012.08.007
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation. Housing in Canada online: Definitions of variables. Retrieved from: https://cmhc.beyond2020.com/HiCODefinitions_EN.html
Statistics Canada. (2017, August 31). Release and Concepts Overview, 2016 Census of Population. Retrieved from Statistics Canada: https://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2016/ref/98-501/98-501-x2016007-eng.cfm
Waterston, S., Grueger, B., & Samson, L. (2015). Housing need in Canada: Healthy lives start at home. Paediatrics and Child Health, 20(7), 403-407. https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/20.7.403
Braveman, P., & Gottlieb, L. (2014). The social determinants of health: it's time to consider the causes of the causes. Public health reports (Washington, D.C. : 1974), 129(Suppl 2), 19–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/00333549141291S206
Canadian Mental Health Association British Columbia Division. (2014). Housing. Vancouver, BC. Retrieved from https://cmha.bc.ca/documents/housing/
Berkman, L. F., Glass, T., Brissette, I., & Seeman, T. E. (2000). From social integration to health: Durkheim in the new millennium. Social science & medicine, 51(6), 843–857. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(00)00065-4
Ross, N. (2002). Community belonging and health. Health Reports, 13(3), 33-39. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/82-003-x/2001003/article/6105-eng.pdf?st=xdMn9Ovi
Shields, M. (2008). Community belonging and self-perceived health. Health Reports, 19(2), 51-60. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/82-003-x/2008002/article/10552-eng.pdf?st=uMcUJujK
Hajek, A., Kretzler, B., & König, H.-H. (2020). Multimorbidity, Loneliness, and Social Isolation. A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(22), 8688. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228688
Leigh-Hunt, N., Bagguley, D., Bash, K., Turner, V., Turnbull, S., Valtorta, N., & Caan, W. (2017). An overview of systematic reviews on the public health consequences of social isolation and loneliness. Public health, 152, 157–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhe.2017.07.035
Zhang, R., & Rasali, D. (2015). Life expectancy ranking of Canadians among the populations in selected OECD countries and its disparities among British Columbians. Archives of Public Health, 73(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13690-015-0065-0
Pinault, L., Christidis, T., Toyib, O., & Crouse, D. L. (2021). Ethnocultural and socioeconomic disparities in exposure to residential greenness within urban Canada. Health reports, 32(5), 3–14. https://www.doi.org/10.25318/82‑003‑x202100500001‑eng
1440 100 Mile House
Firth, C. L., Thierry, B., Daniel, F., Meghan, W., & Kestens, Y. (2021). Gentrification, Urban Interventions and Equity (GENUINE): A map-based gentrification tool for Canadian metropolitan areas. Health reports, 32(5), 15–28. https://www.doi.org/10.25318/82‑003‑x202100500002‑eng
Relova, S., Joffres, Y., Rasali, D., Zhang, R. L., McKee, G., & Janjua, N. (2022). British Columbia’s Index of Multiple Deprivation for Community Health Service Areas. Data, 7(2), 24. https://doi.org/10.3390/data7020024
Ross, N., Wasfi, R., Herrmann, T., & Gleckner, W. (2019). Canadian Active Living Environments Database (Can-ALE): User Manual & Technical Document. Retrieved from http://canue.ca/wp-content/uploads/2018/03/CanALE_UserGuide.pdf
World Health Organization. (2021). Climate change and health. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/climate-change-and-health
Government of Canada. (n.d.). Risks of vaping. Retrieved from Health Canada: https://www.canada.ca/en/health-canada/services/smoking-tobacco/vaping/risks.html#:~:text=Vaping%20can%20increase%20your%20exposure,potential%20to%20promote%20tobacco%20use.
Government of British Columbia. (n.d.). British Columbians who smoke (Age 12+). Retrieved from Healthideas Metaspace: https://meta.healthideas.gov.bc.ca/indicators/british-columbians-who-smoke-age-12
Government of Canada. (n.d.). Physical Activity and your health. Retrieved from Health Canada: https://www.canada.ca/en/public-health/services/being-active/physical-activity-your-health.html
World Health Organization. (2020). Physical activity. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/physical-activity
Tsai, J., Ford, S, E., Li, C., Pearson, W. S., & Zhao, G. (2010). Binge Drinking and Suboptimal Self-Rated Health Among Adult Drinkers. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 34(8), 1465–1471. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2010.01231.x
Piano, M. R., Mazzuco, A., Kang, M., & Phillips, S. A. (2017). Cardiovascular Consequences of Binge Drinking: An Integrative Review with Implications for Advocacy, Policy, and Research. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research, 41(3), 487–496. https://doi.org/10.1111/acer.13329
Im, P. K., Millwood, I. Y., Kartsonaki, C., Guo, Y., Chen, Y., Turnbull, I., Yu, C., Du, H., Pei, P., Lv, J., Walters, R. G., Li, L., Yang, L., Chen, Z., & China Kadoorie Biobank (CKB) collaborative group. (2021). Alcohol drinking and risks of liver cancer and non-neoplastic chronic liver diseases in China: a 10-year prospective study of 0.5 million adults. BMC medicine, 19(1), 216. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12916-021-02079-1
Falk, D. E., Yi, H. Y., & Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S. (2006). An epidemiologic analysis of co-occurring alcohol and tobacco use and disorders: findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Alcohol research & health, 29(3), 162–171.
Kranzler, H. R., & Rosenthal, R. N. (2003). Dual diagnosis: alcoholism and co-morbid psychiatric disorders. The American journal on addictions, 12(s1), s26–s40. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1521-0391.2003.tb00494.x
Tsai, J., Floyd, R. L., & O’Connor, M. J. (2008). Paradigms for alcohol use and co-occurring behavioral health risk factors among women of childbearing age. In K. I. DiGuarde, & K. I. DiGuarde (Ed.), Binge Drinking Research Progress (pp. 87-100). Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
GBD 2020 Alcohol Collaborators. (2022). Population-level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020. Lancet, 400(10347), 185-235. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)00847-9
Chikritzhs, T. Livingston, M. Alcohol and the Risk of Injury. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2777. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13082777
Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP). (2020). Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Adults (Aged 18-64 Years). Retrieved from: http://csepguidelines.ca/
Davy, A., Endres, N.K., Johnson, R.J., Shealy, J.E. (2019). Alpine Skiing Injuries. Sports Health. 11(1):18-26. doi: 10.1177/1941738118813051.
1440 100 Mile House
Emery, C.A., Black, A.M., Kolstad, A., Martinez, G., Nettel-Aguirre, A., Engebretsen, L., Johnston, K., Kissick, J., Maddocks, D., Tator, C., Aubry, M., Dvořák, J., Nagahiro, S., Schneider, K. What strategies can be used to effectively reduce the risk of concussion in sport? A systematic review. Br J Sports Med. 2017 Jun;51(12):978-984. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2016-097452.
Olivier, J., Creighton, P. Bicycle injuries and helmet use: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 1;46(1):278-292. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyw153. Erratum in: Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 1;46(1):372.
Viauroux, C., Gungor, A. An Empirical Analysis of Life Jacket Effectiveness in Recreational Boating. Risk Anal. 2016 Feb;36(2):302-19. doi: 10.1111/risa.12449.
Fouda Mbarga, N., Abubakari, AR., Aminde, L.N. et al. Seatbelt use and risk of major injuries sustained by vehicle occupants during motor-vehicle crashes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. BMC Public Health 18, 1413 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-018-6280-1.
Smithman, M. A. (2018). Area deprivation and attachment to a general practitioner through centralized waiting lists: a cross-sectional study in Quebec, Canada. International Journal for Equity in Health, 17(1), 176. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12939-018-0887-9
Roy, A. B. (2016). Providing continuity of care to a specific population: Attracting new family physicians. Canadian family physician, 62(5), e256–e262.
Maarsingh, O. R. (2016). Continuity of care in primary care and association with survival in older people: a 17-year prospective cohort study. The British journal of general practice: the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 66(649), e531–e539. https://doi.org/10.3399/bjgp16X686101
Frederiksen, H. B.-L. (2010). Attachment in the doctor-patient relationship in general practice: a qualitative study. Scandinavian journal of primary health care, 28(3), 185–190. https://doi.org/10.3109/02813432.2010.505447
Brenk-Franz, K. S. (2017). Patient-provider relationship as mediator between adult attachment and self-management in primary care patients with multiple chronic conditions. Journal of psychosomatic research, 97, 131–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2017.04.007
McRae, I. Y. (2011). Patient affiliation with GPs in Australia--who is and who is not and does it matter? Health policy (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 103(1), 16–23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2010.09.002
Crooks, V. A. (2012). Chronically ill Canadians’ experiences of being unattached to a family doctor: A qualitative study of marginalized patients in British Columbia. BMC Family Practice, 13, 69. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2296-13-69
British Columbia Ministry of Health. (2020, September 15). Transforming primary care in B.C. Retrieved from Government of British Columbia: https://news.gov.bc.ca/releases/2020HLTH0280-001735
Shields, M., & Shooshtari, S. (2001). Determinants of self-perceived health. Health Reports, 13(1), 35-52. Retrieved from https://www150.statcan.gc.ca/n1/en/pub/82-003-x/2001001/article/6023-eng.pdf?st=1vZpJ7Ji
Statistics Canada. (2010, January 11). Healthy People, Healthy Places. Retrieved from https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2018/statcan/82-229-x/82-229-x2009001-eng.pdf
World Health Organization. (2004). Promoting Mental Health. Concepts. Emerging Evidence. Practice. Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/42940/9241591595.pdf
British Columbia Ministry of Health. (2013). Promote, Protect, Prevent: Our Health Begins Here: BC’s Guiding Framework for Public Health. British Columbia Ministry of Health. Retrieved from https://www.health.gov.bc.ca/library/publications/year/2013/BC-guiding-framework-for-public-health.pdf
Government of Canada. (2011). The Well-Being of Canada's Young Children. Retrieved from https://publications.gc.ca/collections/collection_2012/rhdcc-hrsdc/HS1-7-2012-eng.pdf
BC Injury Prevention Committee (BCIPC) Provincial Injury Prevention Priorities. [(accessed on 9 January 2023)]. Available online: http://www.bccdc.ca/pop-public-health/Documents/bcipc-provincial-injury-prevention-priorities-2017.pdf
1440 100 Mile House
Oakey, M., Evans, D.C., Copley, T.T., Karbakhsh, M., Samarakkody, D., Brubacher, J.R., Pawer, S., Zheng, A., Rajabali, F., Fyfe, M., Pike, I. Development of Policy-Relevant Indicators for Injury Prevention in British Columbia by the Key Decision-Makers. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Nov 11;18(22):11837. doi: 10.3390/ijerph182211837.
Poirier, A. E., Ruan, Y., Volesky, K. D., King, W. D., O'Sullivan, D. E., Gogna, P., Walter, S. D., Villeneuve, P. J., Friedenreich, C. M., Brenner, D. R., & ComPARe Study Team. (2019). The current and future burden of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in Canada: Summary of results. Preventive medicine, 122, 140–147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2019.04.007
World Health Organization. (2021, February 8). Musculoskeletal conditions. Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/musculoskeletal-conditions
World Health Organization. (2021, November 10). Diabetes. Retrieved from World Health Organization: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/diabetes
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). (2002, May 2). Time related underemployment: definition. Retrieved from: https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3542

Data Sources

BC Cancer. (2022). BC Cancer Registry, 2016-2020.

BC Centre for Disease Control. (2021). BC COVID-19 SPEAK Round 1 (2020) and Round 2 (2021) Surveys.

BC Centre for Disease Control. (2022). BC's Index of Multiple Deprivation for Community Health Service Areas.

B.C. Ministry of Health. (2021). Chronic Disease Registry, 2020/21.

B.C. Ministry of Health. (2021). Attachment to primary care provider by CHSA, 2020/21.

Perinatal Services BC. British Columbia Perinatal Data Registry. Years Provided: 01/01/2020 to 31/12/2020. Resource Type: Tabulated Data. Data Provided on May 26, 2022.

BC Stats. (2021). Population Projections, Years 2021-2041.

McGill University. (2019). Canadian Active Living Environments, 2016. Retrieved from https://nancyrossresearchgroup.ca.

Statistics Canada. (2018). 2016 Census of Population. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 98-316-X201001.


The Community Health Services Area (CHSA) Health Profiles were developed by the BC Centre for Disease Control, Provincial Health Services Authority, in support of the development of primary care networks (PCNs) and community-level healthy living strategies across B.C. The B.C. Ministry of Health’s primary prevention strategy recognizes the importance of local interests in supporting the creation of environments that promote healthy living.

These profiles will help inform healthcare partners, public health partners, local governments and community organizations on the health and well-being of their communities. As such, the profiles will continue to be updated as data and resources become available to address the changing needs of the communities. Thank you to all of our partners who have contributed to the development of these profiles.